Scientific journal “Processes in GeoMedia” № 4 (26) 2020

DYNAMIC DEFORMATION OF FLUID–SATURATED COLLECTORS BY PRECISION HYDROGEOLOGICAL MONITORING AT «MIKHNEVO» GEOPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY
I.V. Batukhtin, A.N. Besedina, E.M. Gorbunova, S.M. Petukhova
Sadovsky Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of RAS, 119334, Moscow, Leninsky ave. 38-1

Abstract. The hydrogeological responses of the fluid-saturated reservoirs to passage of seismic waves from distant earthquakes are reviewed. Synchronous precision measurements of groundwater level and ground velocity are carried out at the territory of the “Mikhnevo” geophysical observatory, IGD RAS. For the first time coseismic and postseismic hydrogeological effects are recorded in platform conditions from 61 earthquakes with MW from 6.3 to 9.1 that occurred at epicentral distances of 1 863–16 507 km in 2010–2018. Comparative analysis of the normalized spectra of ground velocity and water levels constructed like the spectral ratio of data 3 hours before and after arrival of seismic waves is performed. Features of fluid-saturated reservoirs dynamic deformation are established. Along with the similarities of the normalized spectra the discrepancy between the extremes in the low and high frequency ranges is pointed. Preliminary assessment gave the relative deformation of the fluid-saturated reservoir variations within the range of (0.12–5.95)•10–7 with the ground velocity 0.08–3.78 mm/s.
Keywords: fluid-saturated collector, hydrogeological response, seismic waves, precision monitoring, amplitude-frequency analysis, dynamic impact, relative deformation.

INTERNAL GRAVITY WAVES FAR FIELDS DYNAMICS IN OCEAN WITH AN ARBITRARY BUOYANCY FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION
V.V.Bulatov 1, Yu.V.Vladimirov 1, I.Yu.Vladimirov 2
1 Ishlinsky Institute for Problems in Mechanics of RAS, 119526, Moscow, Vernadskogo ave. 101-1
2 Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS, 117997, Moscow, Nakhimovsky Ave. 36

Abstract. The problem of mathematical modeling of internal gravity waves far fields in an ocean of finite depth with an arbitrary distribution of the buoyancy frequency excited by a moving disturbance source is considered. The main dispersion characteristics that determine the properties of excited far wave fields are analytically and numerically studied. It is shown that the far wave fields of an individual mode represent the sum of individual wave trains. The phase and amplitude structures of the internal gravity waves far fields from moving disturbance sources for various modes of wave generation are numerically studied.
Keywords: internal gravity waves, stratified medium, buoyancy frequency, wave mode.

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TURBULENT MIXING AND OF BIOCHEMICAL SUBSTANCES TRANSPORT IN INLAND WATERS
D.S. Gladskikh 1, 2, 3, E.V. Mortikov 2, 3, 4, V.M. Stepanenko 2, 3
1 Institute of Applied Physics of RAS, 603950, Nizhny Novgorod, Ulyanova str. 46
2 M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Research Computing Center, 119991, Moscow, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, 1-4
3 Moscow Center of Fundamental and Applied Mathematics, 119234, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1-1
4 Marchuk Institute of Numerical Mathematics of RAS, 119333, Moscow, Gubkin str. 8
5 Lomonosov Moscow state University, faculty of Geography, 119234, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1-1

Abstract. The article deals with the problem of numerical modeling of inland water bodies (lakes and reservoirs) and, in particular, the processes of transfer of biochemical substances. A three-dimensional model of the transfer of biochemical impurities has been implemented, which is included in a three-dimensional hydrostatic model developed at the Research Computing Center of Moscow State University. The transport of two passive scalars that simulate oxygen (O2) and methane (CH4) is considered. A series of numerical experiments was carried out to study the vertical transport of these dissolved gases. In the formulation of numerical experiments, the classic Kato-Phillips experiment and the Kato-Phillips experiment, modified by the addition of vertical walls, are used. A comparison is made with the calculations obtained using the one-dimensional LAKE model based on averaging of three-dimensional equations over the horizontal cross-section of the reservoir. The simulations show a qualitative agreement between the calculation results between the three-dimensional and one-dimensional models that take into account seiche oscillations, and the differences are associated with the features of the numerical implementation of the models.
Keywords: numerical simulation, inland water object, greenhouse gases emission, stratification, oxygen, methane.

ANALYSIS OF WATER CIRCULATION DYNAMIC AND ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS NEAR THE WESTERN CRIMEA COAST AND SEVASTOPOL CITY ON THE BASIS OF HYDROLOGICAL SURVEYS DATA ASSIMILATION FOR 2007-2009 IN NUMERICAL MODEL OF DYNAMICS
S.G. Demyshev, N.A. Evstigneeva
Marine hydrophysical Institute of RAS, 299011, Sevastopol, Kapitanskaya str. 2

Abstract. This article tackles the problem of fresh water scarcity across the globe. Technological solutions to extract these resources are the key important issue.Hydrophysical fields and arrays of kinetic and potential energy budget components, continuous in time and space, were reconstructed on the basis of a three-dimensional nonlinear hydrodynamic model with the assimilation of observational data from hydrological surveys in 2007 and 2009 in the coastal zone of the Black Sea (the coast of western Crimea and in the Sevastopol region). To implement the procedure of assimilation of data observations, we used a four-dimensional analysis procedure, based on a modified Kalman filter taking into account the heterogeneity and non-isotropy of error estimates of temperature and salinity. We used a real atmospheric forcing and a high resolution (a horizontal grid ~1.6 × 1.6 km and 30 vertical layers from 1 to 1200 m). During the calculated periods of time, the change in kinetic energy was determined mainly by wind action, vertical friction and the work of pressure forces; change in potential energy – by advection of potential energy. The calculated current fields were characterized by mesoscale eddy formations and jet currents. A horizontal velocity shear (resulting from the negative work of the wind force) and current flow around the coastline under the action of weak winds could be possible mechanisms of the generation of coastal mesoscale and submesoscale eddies in the considered coastal zone.
Keywords: Black sea, numerical modeling, assimilation of observational data, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, jet currents.

LONG PERIOD (SEASONAL AND INTER-ANNUAL) VARIABILITY OF AIR TEMPERATURE IN THE BALTIC REGION
V.F. Dubravin, Zh.I. Stont
Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS, 117997, Moscow, Nakhimovsky Ave. 36

Abstract. The results of the analysis of monthly average air temperature series (Ta °C) at meteorological stations located along the Baltic Sea coast (Stockholm, Kaliningrad, Warnemünde), lasting up to 260 years, are presented. The dispersion, harmonic, correlation and spectral analysis of the data was carried out. The components of the long-term component Ta, normalized to the total variance, are highly stable, both in time and space. The curves of the regular seasonal variation of Ta at all stations at different intervals are characterized by similarity (r = 0.995 ÷ 0.999) and a well-pronounced annual variation, the correctness of which is confirmed by the results of harmonic analysis. Spectral analysis of the Ta time series made it possible to identify some quasi-cyclicities: quasi-biennial (peaks 2.1÷2.3, 2.7÷3.0 years), quasi-quadruple-year (peaks 3.6, 4.7÷4.9 years), quasi-six-year-olds (peak 5.6÷5.7 years), quasi-eight-year-olds (peak 8.0 years) and quasi-eighteen-year-olds (peak 13.3÷14.3 years). Similar quasicyclicities were noted earlier when analyzing the variability of hydrometeorological elements and fluxes of heat, moisture, and momentum, as well as the components of the water balance and thermohaline structure of the Baltic Sea waters.
Keywords: Baltic Sea, air temperature, regular seasonal variation and interannual variability of air temperature, dispersion, harmonic, correlation and spectral types of analysis.

SEDIMENTATION OF SUSPENDED MATTER IN THE NORTH-EASTERN PART OF THE BLACK SEA
I.M. Kabatchenko 1, 3, 4, A.L. Brekhovskikh 1, 2, M.C. Kluyev 2, E.A. Korshenko 1, M.V. Reznikov 1, V.V. Fomin 1
1 N.N. Zubov state Oceanographic Institute, Roshydromet, 119034, Moscow, Kropotkinsky lane 6
2 P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of RAS, 117997, Moscow, Nakhimovsky Ave. 36
3 Moscow Institute of physics and technology, 141701, Moscow Region, Dolgoprudny, Institutsky lane 9
4 Russian University of Transport, 127994, Moscow, Novosushchevskaya str. 22

Abstract. A model of distribution and sedimentation of suspended matter is presented. The model with high spatial and temporal resolution is numerically implemented for the North-Eastern region of the Black sea. The profiles of the mass concentration of suspended matter obtained as a result of modeling do not contradict to modern vision about the vertical distribution of this value. As a result, a high spatial variability in the accumulation of bottom sedimentation was established. There are two zones with a high level of sedimentation (up to 2 kg/m2 per year). The first is located in the Central part of the district, the second on the Kerch-Taman shelf.
Keywords: spread and sedimentation of suspended matter, marine turbulence, mass concentration profiles of suspended matter, zones with a high level of sedimentation in the North-Eastern region of the Black sea.

MASS TRANSFER AND BOUNDARY LAYER DETACHMENT UNDER THE AQUEOUS SOLUTION EFFECT ON ROCK SALT
V.P. Malyukov
Russian Peoples’ Friendship University, Russia, 117198, Moscow, Miklukho-Maklaya str. 6

Abstract. Different variants of the solution’s effect on the rock salt surface and the boundary layer, associated with increase of the boundary layer detachment and the mass transfer surface, are considered. Hydrodynamic vortex action of the solution on the surface of rock salt cores forms three-dimensional craters with smooth contours, as well as three-dimensional craters with sharp edges. The phenomenon of the salt plate bounding from the salt crystal of the Botuobinskoye deposit (Sakha Republic) in the process of mass transfer under the effect of solution at low temperatures is discovered. The phenomenon of self-organized hydrodynamic vortex structures formation with occurrence of hemispherical crater structures on the rock salt surface of vertical and horizontal models in the process of mass transfer with boundary layer detachment is revealed. The phenomenon of formation of a two-level crater on the surface of a rock salt core has been discovered, when a smaller spiral-shaped crater forms on the surface of a large crater, which deepens into the rock salt. On the surface of a large crater (formed by “large” vortex), the imprint of a small crater is formed under the influence of “smaller” vortex. This phenomenon characterizes the subsequent impact of two different vortices on the salt area with a successive separation of the boundary layer.
Keywords: mass transfer, underground mine- reservoir, self-organized hydrodynamic vortex structure, boundary layer detachment, concentration, mechanical, vortex, mechanodynamic, gas.

ON THE STABILITY OF THE INTERFACE BETWEEN TWO HEAVY FLUIDS IN A FAST OSCILLATING VESSEL
S.V. Nesterov 1, V.G. Baydulov 1, 2
1 A. Ishlinsky Institute for Problems in Mechanics of RAS, 119526, Moscow, Vernadskogo ave. 101-1
2 Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 105005, Moscow, 2nd Baumanskaya str. 5-1

Abstract. The solution to the problem of dynamic stabilization of the Rayleigh – Taylor instability of the interface between two heavy fluids with an inverse density distribution is considered within the framework of the linear model of an ideal fluid. A necessity condition for the stabilization of an unstable equilibrium is concluded for the frequency and amplitude of vertical oscillations of a vessel with a liquid, which is in agreement with the previously obtained experimental data.
Keywords: ideal liquid oscillations, liquid/liquid interface, Rayleigh–Taylor instability.

TECHNOLOGIES FOR UNDERGROUND RESERVOIRS CONSTRUCTION AT DISSOLUTION OF ROCK SALT
V.P. Malyukov, A.A. Shepilev
Russian Peoples’ Friendship University, 117198, Moscow, Miklukho-Maklaya str. 6

Abstract. An overview of construction technologies for the underground shell-reservoirs in rock salt, created by underground dissolution method, is presented. The process of creating a horizontally located shell-reservoirs, as well as a vertically located mine, is reduced to controlling the process of mass transfer of rock salt when exposed to a solvent. The basic parameters of the mine construction process are: the solvent supply capacity; the number of stages of column movement; the amount of salt extracted at each stage; numerical value of the concentration of the extracted brine produced during the formation of the mine.
Keywords: technology, well, hydrocarbons, reservoirs, rock salt, solution.

FEATURES OF ADMIXTURE DYNAMICS IN THE FLUID DEPTH FOR COMPLEX VORTEX WITH FREE SURFACE
V.P. Pakhnenko
A. Ishlinsky Institute for Problems in Mechanics of RAS, 119526, Moscow, Vernadskogo ave. 101-1

Abstract. A processing method for experimental data on the propagation of a marking admixture in the vortex flow column is developed. The correctness of the created programs and the benefits of their use are demonstrated. Based on the used programs, new data on the structure of the isolated central column, where the admixture intensely penetrates the liquid thickness, are obtained. The data obtained are in good agreement with previously obtained results for other types of marking admixtures.
Keywords: vortex flow, marking admixture, experimental research, software processing, image, vector graphics.

STUDY OF VARIATIONS IN THE PARAMETERS OF THE ELECTRIC FIELD DURING THE PERIOD OF MAGNETIC STORM IN 2018
S.A. Riabova
Sadovsky Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of RAS, 119334, Moscow, Leninsky ave. 38-1

Abstract. The results of processing and analysis of anomalies of electrical parameters recorded at the “Mikhnevo” Geophysical Observatory and at the Center for Geophysical Monitoring in Moscow of Sadovsky Institute of Geosphere of RAS during the period of strong geomagnetic disturbances in 2018 are presented. The variations of the vertical component of the electric field and atmospheric current during the period of geomagnetic storms selected from weather data are considered.
Keywords: geomagnetic storm, atmospheric current, vertical component of the electric field strength.

EFFECT OF FREEZING ON THE STABILITY OF DISSOLVED SILICA IN NATURAL WATERS
A.V. Savenko 1, V.S. Savenko 2
1 M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of geology, 119991, Moscow, Leninskie gory, 1
2 M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of geography, 119991, Moscow, Leninskie gory, 1

Abstract. The behavior of dissolved silicon during complete freezing and subsequent thawing of fresh surface waters saturated by amorphous silica was experimentally studied. It was found that all frozen fresh water samples after thawing have the same concentration of dissolved silicon as before freezing. The same is observed for cations of the basic salt composition (sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium), indicating the absence of concentration hysteresis associated with freezing–thawing of fresh waters. It was concluded that the cryogenic genesis of newly formed mineral phases of silica in freezing soils is associated with presence in soil waters of dissolved aluminum, which sharply reduces the solubility of amorphous silica.
Keywords: silica, fresh surface waters, ice formation.

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EXTERNAL INFLUENCE ON EVENING TRANSITION IN ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER
E.V. Tkachenko 1, A.V. Debolskiy 1 ,2, 3, E.V. Mortikov 1, 2, 4
1 M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Research Computing Center, 119991, Moscow, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, 1-4
2 Moscow Center of Fundamental and Applied Mathematics, 119234, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1-1
3 A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS, 119017, Moscow, Pyzhovsky Lane 3
4 Marchuk Institute of Numerical Mathematics of RAS, 119333, Moscow, Gubkin str. 8

Abstract. Transitional periods of the diurnal cycle, being non–stationary processes in atmospheric boundary layer, pose a particular interest concerning the simulation of their presence in weather forecast and climate models. In this study the influence of external parameters, such as kinematic surface heat flux, geostrophic wind, surface roughness and mesoscale subsidence rate, is investigated in regards to evening transition (from convective to stably stratified boundary layer). The single-column numerical model is utilized for the research. The evening transition is studied in context of the decay of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and how it changes depending on values of aforementioned parameters. In order to evaluate the accuracy of experiments in this study, they are compared to the results of LES (Large-Eddy Simulation) experiments. The results of performed experiments have shown to be closely resembling the results of LES experiments. Also the influence of different parameters on individual qualities of the TKE decay dynamics (such as rate of decay, time of the decay start etc.) was noted. The results of this study demonstrate the necessity for better parametrization of turbulent exchange processes for better modeling of evening transition and non–stationary processes in atmospheric boundary layer.
Keywords: atmospheric boundary layer, turbulence, diurnal cycle, evening transition, turbulent kinetic energy, surface heat flux, geostrophic wind, numerical experiments.

IDENTIFICATION OF HOLLOW CHAMBERS UNDER THE ANCHORING CONCRETE PLATES FOR THE TOP SLOPES OF THE NOVOSIBIRSK HEPP DAM BY ACOUSTIC NOISE
K.V. Fedin 1, 2, 3, Yu.I. Kolesnikov 1, L. Ngomayeswe 2
1 Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Koptyuga ave. 3
2 Novosibirsk State University, 630090, Novosibirsk, Pirogova str. 2
3 Novosibirsk State Technical University, 630073, Novosibirsk, 20 Karl Marx ave.

Abstract. The ability of the standing waves method to identify defects in the fastenings of water slopes of dams of hydroengineering constructions are demonstrated on the example of the Novosibirsk hepp. The accumulation of amplitude spectra of acoustic noise records allow to determine frequencies of the few first modes of standing compression-stretching waves generated by noise in concrete slabs. A sharp increase in the frequency of the lowest mode of standing waves is an indicator of the appearance of hollows under the slabs or decompression of the base soils.
Keywords: hydrostation dam, fastenings of water faces, voids, diagnostics, standing wave method, areal observations.

GEOCHRONOLOGY AND KINEMATIC MODEL OF DEVELOPMENT FOR THE POWELL BASIN BOTTOM IN THE NORTH-WEST PART OF THE WEDDELL SEA
A.A. Schreider 1, A.E Sazhneva. 1, M.S. Kluyev 1, A.L. Brekhovskikh 1 , F. Bohoyo 2, J. Galindo-Zaldivar 3, C. Morales 4, E. I. Evsenko 1
1 Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS, 117997, Moscow, Nakhimovsky Ave. 36
2 Spanish Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, 23 Rios Rosas, Madrid, 28003, Spain
3 University of Granada, 18010, Spain, Granada s/n C.P., Ave. del Ospicio
4 Andalusian Institute of Earth Sciences, 18071, Spain, Granada, Ave. De Las Palmeras 4

Abstract. Based on the results of previously unpublished research in recent years by the Spanish research vessel Hesperidas, new and, if necessary, reinterpreted previously known sequences of linear magnetic anomalies in the Powell basin. Magnetic field anomalies were modeled from the perspective of lithospheric plate tectonics and a modern version of the electronic map-scheme of the basin bottom geochronology was compiled. The determination of Euler poles and rotation angles, carried out using original programs developed at IO RAS, allowed for the first time to conduct a detailed kinematic analysis of the features of the bottom expansion process based on the original technologies for calculating instantaneous spreading rates, and the asymmetry of the bottom expansion process, including the determination of the corresponding errors. The expansion of the bottom began during the c17n.3n chron (38.159-38.333 million years)and stopped during chron C11n. 2n (29.527-29.970 million years). Spreading took place at an average speed of 1 cm / year. Based on the calculations, detailed paleogeodynamics of the Orkney microcontinent splitting off from the Antarctic Peninsula during the spreading process has been restored.
Keywords: Weddell sea, Powell basin, Eulerian poles, paleogeodynamics.

STUDY OF THE TROPOSPHERIC POTENTIAL VORTICITY STRUCTURE ON THE MESO-g SCALE DURING DEEP MOIST CONVECTION APPLYING WRF-ARW MODEL
Yu. I. Iusupov
MapMakers Group Ltd., 123242, Moscow, Novovagankovsky lane, 5-1

Abstract. Study of the structure of a potential vorticity was carried out using a mesoscale non-hydrostatic model WRF-ARW with a horizontal resolution of 6 x 6 km considering the example of the Moscow catastrophic storm on May 29, 2017. For the first time, it became possible to reproduce horizontally oriented dipoles of potential vorticity anomalies in the middle troposphere around a convective ascending flow using the WRF-ARW model. The dipoles are located along the front line in the direction of the mean wind shear vector in the 0 – 6 km layer. It became possible to trace the dynamics of the evolution of the dipoles with a 10-minute time step from 6:00 to 22:00 UTC. During the experiment, it turned out that the forecast fields of mesoscale potential vorticity with a predicted time of up to 15 hours correctly reflected the synoptic situation, which was confirmed by observational data from synoptic stations and information from meteorological radars. This allows us to draw a conclusion about the effective use of operational calculations of the mesoscale potential vorticity to improve the quality of nowcasting when predicting zones of active convection, hazardous and unfavorable weather phenomena.
Keywords: dipole, potential vorticity, mesoscale, deep moist convection.