Scientific journal “Processes in GeoMedia” № 3 (25) 2020

INSTRUMENTAL INCLINOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS OF FLOWS OF THE PREGOLYA AND DEIMA RIVERS DURING A PERIOD 10.12 – 26.12.2019
R.V. Boskachev 1, B.V. Chubarenko 2, A.A. Kondrashov 2, A.O. Korzh 2
1 Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, 236041, Kaliningrad, Alexander Nevsky str. 14
 2 Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS, 117997, Moscow, Nakhimovsky ave. 36

Abstract. The study is based on flow measurements of the Pregolya River at 2 points and Deima River at 2 points for 16 days (10.12.19 – 26.12.19), which are made by inclinometer measuring the speed of bottom currents (IMSBC). The facts of reverse flow in the Pregolya River are instrumentally confirmed, which allow to assess the degree of their influence on the Deima River flow. The flow of the Pregolya River at points No.1 Rodniki and No.3 Gvardeisk had the opposite direction to the natural one (i.e. backward, from the Kaliningrad (Vistula) lagoon) in 12% and 2% of measurements, respectively. At the same time, all measurements of the Deima River flow direction are directed in the natural direction – to the Curonian lagoon, i.e. for the entire period of measurements on the Deima River, no reverse flows are recorded. The reason for the difference between points No.1 Rodniki and No.3 Gvardeisk in the number and duration of detected cases of backflow is due to the water back-up in the Kaliningrad (Vistula) lagoon affects the flow in the point No.1 Rodniki closer to the river mouth (19 km from the mouth), but due to the short duration of the back-up action, the reverse flow is not manifested at point No.3 Gvardeisk (55 km from the mouth).
Keywords: river level, speed of the current, river mouth area, Pregolya River, Deima River, Vistula lagoon, Curonian lagoon.

ABOUT THE PRINCIPLES OF SEISMOACOUSTIC STUDY OF PALOESTRUCTURES OF THE SEA BOTTOM OF THE COASTAL ZONE (ON THE EXAMPLE OF BLUE BAY)
A.L. Brekhovskikh 1, M.S. Klyuev 1, A.E. Sazhneva 1, A.A. Shreider 1, A.S. Zverev 2
1 Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS, 117997, Moscow, Nahimovskiy ave. 36
2 V.I. Vernadsky Institute of geochemistry and analytical chemistry RAS, 119991, Moscow, Kosygina str. 19

Abstract. The principles of seismic-acoustic detection and study of paleostructures of the coastal marine zone are considered. It is proposed to use the method of broadband seismic-acoustic sounding with a variable radiation pattern and the use of high-precision marine GPS navigation. Approaches to the problem of seismic-acoustic detection and study of bottom paleostructures have been developed. The equipment for the practical implementation of the considered methods and approaches is described. The results of their application to study the paleostructures of the Ashamba River in the Blue Bay near the city of Gelendzhik are presented. The analysis and mapping of identified bottom paleostructures is carried out.
Keywords: coastal zone geomorphology of the bottom, bottom paleostructure, gas flares, seismic and acoustic equipment.

INFLUENCE OF THE CONTINENTAL RUNOFF ON THE DENSITY STRATIFICATION OF THE BARENTS AND KARA SEAS
A.A. Bukatov, E.A. Pavlenko, N.M. Solovey
Marine Hydrophysical Institute RAS, 299011, Sevastopol, Kapitanskaya str. 2

Abstract. The influence of the runoff of the Pechora, Ob and Yenisei Rivers on the density stratification of the Barents and Kara Seas was studied on the basis of the ORAP5 reanalysis data for 1979 – 2013 with a resolution of 0.25º×0.25º. Pechora runoff influences on the hydrological conditions of the southeastern part of the Barents Sea and the southwestern part of the Kara Sea, where statistically significant positive correlation coefficients (R) are observed between the values of the maximum buoyancy frequency in the depth and river flow volumes. The density stratification of the Kara Sea is also affected by runoffs of the Ob and Yenisei, while the impact of the Ob is more pronounced. The areas of significant correlation coefficients between the values of the maximum buoyancy frequency in the depth and the runoff volumes of the Ob lie in the southwestern, northwestern and central regions of the Kara Sea. Significant positive R for the Yenisei are located near the coast of the Taimyr Peninsula, which corresponds to the “eastern” pattern of the river water distribution in the Kara Sea.
Keywords: Arctic, Barents Sea, Kara Sea, Brunt-Vaisala frequency, vertical water structure, river flow, Pechora river, Ob river, Yenisei river.

FAR INTERNAL GRAVITY WAVES FIELDS FROM NON-LOCAL DISTURBANCE SOURCE
V.V. Bulatov, Yu.V. Vladimirov
Ishlinsky Institute for Problems in Mechanics RAS, 119526, Moscow, Vernadskogo ave. 101-1

Abstract. The paper considers the problem of mathematical modeling of internal gravity waves far fields from nonlocal disturbances sources. An integral representation of the solution is presented, represented as the sum of the wave modes. The characteristics of the corresponding dispersion relations, which determine the characteristics of far wave fields, are studied. Asymptotic representations for individual wave modes are obtained, which allow one to calculate wave fields far from nonlocal disturbances sources.
Keywords: internal gravity waves, stratified medium, disturbance source, asymptotic, far fields, dispersion curves.

THE CALCULATION SCHEME FOR PURIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS IN INERTIAL NOZZLE TYPE SEPARATORS
I. Kh. Enikeev
Moscow Polytechnic University, 107023, Moscow, B. Semyonovskaya str. 38

Abstract. The work is devoted to the development of a gas-dynamic model for the movement of multi-speed continuums in complex-shaped nozzles that simulate the shape of a two-stage inertial air purifier. The influence of the force interaction between the gas and dispersed phases on the flow structure of the gas-dust flow in the nozzle flow section in a wide range of changes in the determining parameters of the undisturbed flow is studied. Special attention is paid to the modes of movement of gas-dispersed flows in curved channels (nozzles) with a large mass content of the dispersed phase in the inlet section of the channel (nozzle). A mathematical model has been created that allows us to take into account the effect of particles Bouncing off the nozzle walls on the distribution of characteristics of both the gas and the dispersed phase in the entire region under consideration. It is shown that accounting for bounced particles leads to the presence of an extremum in the mass concentration distribution of the dispersed phase in the flow part of the separator.
Keywords: gas-dispersed flows, nozzle separators, interpenetrating continuums, partial differential equations.

STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF SAINT PETERSBURG FLOOD PREVENTION FACILITY COMPLEX ON THE HYDROTHERMODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NEVA BAY DURING A STRONG STORM SURGE ON OCTOBER 1-2, 2019
E.V. Zakharova 1, 2, V.V. Fomin 1, 3, E.M. Ladokhina 4, 5, K.G. Rubinshtein 5, 6, N.A. Diansky 1, 2, 3
1 N.N. Zubov State Oceanographic Institute, 119034, Moscow, Kropotkinsky lane 6-1
2 M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1-2
3 Institute of computational mathematics RAS, 119333, Moscow, Gubkina str. 8
4 North-Western UGMS, 197022, Saint-Petersburg, Prof. Popova str. 48
5 FGBU Hydrometeorological center of Russia, 123242, Moscow, B. Predtechensky lane 11-9
6 Institute of safety problems of nuclear power development RAS, 115191, Moscow, Tulskaya str. 52

Abstract. A software package (SP) based on the INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model) and the WRF-ARF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) regional non-hydrostatic atmospheric model is presented. The approbation of this SP and the study of the impact of Saint Petersburg Flood Prevention Facility Complex (FPFC) on the hydrothermodynamic characteristics of the Neva Bay during the period of a strong storm surge on October 1-2, 2019 was carried out. For this, two numerical experiments were conducted with using the INMOM with open and closed culvert construction and dock-gate buildings FPFC sections during a significant rise of sea level. Based on the results of these experiments, a comparative analysis was carried out a significant rise of sea level, in order to identify differences in the reproduction of sea level, currents, salinity and temperature in the Neva Bay. It is shown that the closure of the FPFC sections significantly affects the rise in sea level, changes the structure of currents, due to the suspension of water exchange between the Gulf of Finland and the Neva Bay, which is reflected in the spatial distribution changes of temperature and salinity.
Keywords: Baltic Sea, Saint Petersburg Flood Prevention Facility Complex, sea circulation, storm surge, numerical modeling.

IDENTIFICATION OF SUSPENDED MATTER FLOWS ON THE SEA BOTTOM BY REMOTE SENSING DATA BASED ON THE VARIATIONAL ASSIMILATION ALGORITHM
V.S. Kochergin, S.V. Kochergin
Marine Hydrophysical Institute of RAS, 299011, Sevastopol, Kapitanskaya str. 2

Abstract. This paper considers a variational algorithm for assimilation of satellite measurements of suspended matter concentration in the upper sea layer by identifying impurity flows at the bottom of the sea. The algorithm is implemented for the model of passive impurity transfer over a time interval of two days. The calculations made it possible to estimate the values of flows on the sea floor and analyze them. The identification procedure is realized based on minimizing the quadratic functional of the forecast quality and solving related problems.
Keywords: transport model, adjoint equations, identification of substance flows, Azov sea.

GEOLOGICAL AND GEOMORPHOLOGICAL SHORE STRUCTURE OF THE CENTRAL PART OF KASATKA BAY (ITURUP ISLAND, SOUTH KURIL ISLANDS)
M.A. Kuznetsov 1, D.E. Edemsky 2
1 Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Geography, 119991, Moscow, leninskye Gory 1-2
2 Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 108840, Moscow, Troitsk, Kaluzhskoe ave. 4

Abstract. Iturup is the largest and most explored island of the Kuril Archipelago. It is known for the activity of tectonic processes, active volcanoes and geothermal sources, and is rich in minerals. Howe-ver, much less attention is paid to the study of the geological and geomorphological structure of the coast. As a result of our studies, we identified 3 morpholithogenetic types of coasts in Kasatka Bay, of which 49% are in the accumulative coasts with sand-pebbles beaches, and 51% are on the erosion and erosion-denudation coasts (gulf flanks and Chertovka rock). A geomorphological description and profi-ling of coasts and sea terraces has been performed. Using the joint use of geomorphological and geophysical methods, the geological and geomorphological structure of marine terraces in the central part of the bay has been clarified. A georadar survey of the shore was carried out according to seven georadar profiles on a site longer than five kilometers. Geological and geomorphological sections of low sea terraces were obtained on the basis of GPR sounding using the common midpoint method. It has been established that a 5–15 m accumulative terrace level lies on top of an ancient bench, develop-ped, most likely, in proluvial pre-Holocene deposits. The measurements showed that the pyroclastic cover with buried soils at terrace levels of 25–40 m and 45–60 m has a subhorizontal flat-layered struc-ture from 3 to 5-6 m thick. with a thickness of 3 to 5–6 m. Studies of terrace 45–60 m structure above Chertovka rock showed the presence of ancient lahar deposits under pyroclastic cover with buried soils.
Keywords: Kuril Islands, coastal classification, GPR, marine sediments, marine terraces.

BRINGING GEOPHYSICAL FIELDS OF SCALAR, VECTOR AND TENSOR ORIGINS TO A SINGLE TYPE IN THE INTERPRETATION OF THE STUDY RESULTS FOR THE HORIZONTAL WELLS OF COMPLEX GEOMETRY
I.V. Kuzminova
Ukhta state technical University, 169300, Ukhta, Oktyabrskaya str. 13

Abstract. Graphically illustrated complex geometry of the wellbore of inclined and horizontal wells. The problem areas of cross-section of horizontal wells with different quality of cementing casing are shown. A method allowing to combine scalar, vector and tensor geophysical fields of horizontal wells of complex geometry to a single type is described.
Keywords: scalar, vector, tensor fields, differential measuring transducer, gravitational navigation.

METHANE FLUID EMISSION FROM THE SEABED: COMPARISON OF MEASURED FLOW AT LASPI BAY SEEPAGE AREA WITH FLOWS IN OTHER GAS EMISSION REGIONS
T.V. Malakhova 1, A.A. Budnikov 2, I.N. Ivanova 2, A.I Murashova 1
1 A.O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS, 299011, Sevastopol, Nakhimov ave. 2
2 M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, 119991, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1-2

Abstract. Fluid flows in Laspi Bay measured in situ are compared with diffusion flows from bottom sediments of the Sevastopol water area, as well as with flows in other coastal areas. The measured values of fluid flows varied within 1.4–74.3 mmol / m2 day, depending on the distance from each other and to the nearest bubble plum. Probably the carbonate deposits can direct gas streams that will emerge from the seabed in the form of bubble seeps, while the sand layer disperse the gas in the form of fluids. It was shown that the integral fluid flow from seabed can be comparable to the bubble gas flow. The maximum fluid flow per 1 square meter from the seabed in Laspy Bay is only 3.5 times lower compared to the minimum registered flow from a single bubble seep.
Keywords: methane, fluid discharge, gas trap, seeps, Laspi Bay, Black Sea.

FEATURES OF GEOMONITORING OF AN UNDERGROUND COMPLEX IN MEGALOPOLIS DURING FREEZING OF SOIL-ROCK MASS
D.L. Neguritsa 1, A.A. Tereshin 2, E.A. Medvedev 2
1 Sergo Ordzhonikidze Russian State University for Geological Prospecting, 117997, Russia, Moscow, Miklukho-Maklaya str. 23
2 National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, 129337, Russia, Moscow, Yaroslavskoe sh. 26

Abstract. Features of monitoring of deformation processes development of a subsoil-rock massif in the foundation of underground complex in a complex of buildings as a result of frost heave are considered. The object under study is represented by buildings consisting of a monolithic reinforced concrete frame, enclosing load-bearing and curtain wall panels. Construction work is accompanied by geomonitoring, which provides an assessment of the impact of new construction on the surrounding buildings and structures, on the atmospheric, geological and hydrogeological environment during construction and subsequent years of operation. The problems of measurement organization, production and processing of data are considered. On the basis of measurement data analysis, the conclusion about plastic flow of deformation process are made. Return of building structures position to a design condition and attenuation of deformation processes are also concluded at normalization of construction process conditions. Recommendations on the technique of underground complex operation are developed.
Keywords: geomonitoring, megacities, construction, soil and rock mass, deformations, recommendations.

THE EFFECT OF PERTURBATIONS IN MARINE ENVIRONMENT ON OPTICAL PARAMETERS OF NEAR-WATER ATMOSPHERIC LAYER
V.N. Nosov 1, S.G. Ivanov 1, S.B. Kaledin 2, A.S. Savin 2
1 Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry V.I. Vernadsky RAS, 119991, Moscow, Kosygina str., 19
2 N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 105005, Moscow, 2nd Bauman str., 5

Abstract. The parameter changes of laser radiation scattering by aerosol in near-water atmospheric layer caused by artificially created hydrodynamic perturbations in the marine environment are described and observed in the field experiments. The laser radiation scattering over the flooded stream and the ship trace was studied using the set up of aerosol lidar. The experimental study found the significant effect of hydrodynamic perturbations on aerosol scattering parameters. The experimental results are explained in the framework of bubble mechanism of gas evolution from the sea water.
Keywords: aerosols, laser radiation scattering, lidar, hydrodynamic perturbations, marine environment.

ANALYSIS OF EXTREME DAILY ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATION IN THE BLACK SEA REGIONS BASED ON THE MAX-SPECTRUM APPROACH
V.L. Pososhkov
Marine Hydrophysical Institute of RAS, 299011, Sevastopol, Kapitanskaya str. 2

Abstract. The analysis of the frequency and intensity of daily precipitation in the regions of the Black sea, characterized by frequent precipitation of a storm water nature, is performed. These are the AI-Petri mountain range (the Northern coast of the Central part of the Black sea) and the area of Sochi (the Eastern coast). The focus is on extreme precipitation. For the analysis, we used observations from the database of the North-Eurasian climate center (NECC).Estimation of parameters of the precipitation distribution function in the area of rare (extreme) events was determined on the basis of the max-spectrum approach. It is shown that the decay of the heavy tail of the distribution function obeys the power law Estimates of the value of the attenuation coefficient are obtained. For both points, the results are compared based on samples of time series spaced over time by a value comparable to the climate period. It is shown that according to observations in the AI-Petri mountain range, the decay decrement of the distribution function is slightly lower at the end of the ХХth century compared to its beginning. This means that the probability of extreme precipitation of a certain level at the end of the century is higher than at the beginning. The spectra obtained on the field data basis in Sochi revealed significant stability over time. The attenuation coefficient of the distribution function obtained from the spectra corresponding to time intervals spaced over 15 years differs by less than 5%.
Keywords: extreme precipitation, long-term time series, distribution function, maximum spectrum, mountain range, Black Sea.

ANALYSIS OF SOURCES OF ERRORS IN MEASUREMENTS OF THE SPECTRAL BRIGHTNESS COEFFICIENT OF THE SEA
L.A. Stefantsev
Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry of RAS, 119991, Moscow, Kosygina str. 19

Abstract. Potential sources of errors in the measurements of the spectral brightness coefficient of radiation coming out of the sea are considered. The determining factors of their significance in different hydrometeorological conditions are highlighted. The estimation of possible values of errors for various sources is carried out, the possibilities of minimizing the total error for various schemes of full-scale experiment are investigated. For special sources, practical recommendations are given to minimize the relative values of the considered errors.
Keywords: spectral brightness coefficient of radiation, sun glare, color index, albedo.

BOTTOM OF THE LOMONOSOV RIDGE POLE AREA KINEMATICS IN ARCTIC
A.A. Schreider 1, A.L. Brehovskih 1, A.E. Sazhneva 1, M.S. Kluev 1, I.Ya. Rakitin 1, J. Galindo-Zaldivar 2, E.I. Evsenko 1, O.V. Greenberg 1
 1 P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of RAS, 117997, Moscow, Nakhimovsky ave. 36
2 University of Granada, 18010, Spain, Granada s/n C.P., ave. del Нospicio

Abstract. The Lomonosov Ridge divides the Arctic Ocean into the Amerasian and Eurasian basins and plays a significant role in the evolution of the Arctic region. In the polar region of the ridge, in the range of 88–89 N, the Intra depression is located with depths of more than 2.6 km, with the position of the ridge surface at a depth of 1.5 km. The origin of the Intra Depression is debated in many studies. Due to the lack of unified views on the nature of the basin under consideration, great importance is attached to a comprehensive interpretation of the entire set of geological and geophysical data. In this regard, a kinematic model for the development of the polar segment of the Lomonosov Ridge has been developed. As a result of data analysis and calculation of kinematic characteristics, for the first time on a quantitative basis, a model was developed for the evolution of the bottom of the polar region of the Lomonosov Ridge.
Keywords: Lomonosov Ridge, Intra basin, aeromagnetic and seismic profiles, gravitational anomalies, Euler poles, reconstruction of paleobatimetry.