Scientific journal “Processes in GeoMedia” Issue 1 (23) 2020

UNDERGROUND HYDROGEN STORAGE. PRINCIPAL CHALLENGES OF THE TRANSITION TO THE “GREEN POWER INDUSTRY”
K.A. Butov

I.M. Gubkin Russian state University of Oil and Gas, 119296, Moscow, Leninskiy ave., 65-1

Abstract. The paper provides an overview of the main milestones in the development of underground hydrogen storage from the first scientific research to industrial implementation. The basis for the development of this direction is the huge contribution of the gas industry to the formation of research aimed at studying the issue of joint storage of natural gas and hydrogen. The possibilities of implementing the storage of hydrogen in various porous and mountain impermeable structures using the examples of PVC of Great Britain, the USA and other countries, as well as problematic issues that arise during their operation are considered.
The physicochemical properties of hydrogen open up a new spectrum of technological and scientific problems for underground storage. However, there are a number of open questions regarding the use of hydrogen as a storage gas, such as: high diffusion ability, interaction with steels (hydrogenation), microbiological effects, etc. The structure of the use of hydrogen energy in Western Europe is considered. Given the low demand in the early years for the development of pilot projects to store surplus energy, most of them were not implemented.
Keywords: underground gas storage, hydrogen, hydrogen energy, porous strata, decarbonization.

STUDY OF THE ORIENTATION FORMATION FOR NOISE EMITTED Y PASSING ELECTRIC TRAIN
B.I. Goncharenko

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Chair of Acoustics, 119991, Moscow, Leninskie gory, 1-2

Abstract. The formation of the direction of noise emitted by a passing train based on simultaneously registered sound pressure levels and three mutually orthogonal components of the vibrational speed is studied. It is shown that if the moving train system is represented as a reflecting surface of the earth in the form of a dipole source in the horizontal plane, then in the frequency range of 200–1000 Hz, the dipole is oriented at a small angle to the horizontal plane XY. Experimental data on the train’s passing characteristics along the acoustic energy flow were processed and compared with the dipole model of the sound source. It is shown that in the frequency range of 20-350 Hz a moving train can be represented as a noise source with a dipole directivity diagram in the vertical plane at an angle to the horizontal plane XY, and the value of the angle decreases with increasing frequency.
Keywords: direction of noise source, underlying surface, scattering element, sound pressure levels, input impedance of medium, noise reduction, vector receiver.

SIMULATION OF SEISMIC RESPONSES FROM THE BAZHENOV FORMATION BASED ON THE CONTINUUM MODEL OF LAYERED MEDIA
V.I. Golubev 1, A.V. Ekimenko 2, I.S. Nikitin 3, Yu.A. Golubeva 1

1 Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141701, Dolgoprudny, Institutskiy lane, 9
2 Gazprom Neft Science&Technology Centre, 190000, Saint-Petersburg, Moyka River embank., 75-79 D
3 Institute of Computer Aided Design of RAS, 123056, Moscow, 2nd Brestskaya str., 19/18

Abstract. The process of seismic waves propagation in a heterogeneous geological medium is studied. The linear elastic isotropic model is used. The geological model of the Bazhenov formation is considered. The continuous model of a layered medium taking into account interlayer slippage and delamination is used to describe the dynamic behavior of the mudstone layer. Also, the presence of a static rock pressure in the geological massif is taken into account. The analysis of the signal recorded on the day surface is carried out.
Keywords: oil and gas fields, seismic exploration, mathematical modeling, numerical methods, parallel algorithms, continuum models.

INTERNAL WAVES EMISSION AND PROPAGATION IN NATURAL ENTITY WITH VARIABLE BUOYANCY FREQUENCY
Kistovich A.V.

WSC «All-Russian Research Institute of Physical-Technical and radio-Technical Measurements», 141570, Moscow region, Solnechnogorsk distr., Mendeleevo

Abstract. The Green function for a harmonic internal waves source placed in an arbitrary point of an incompressible inviscid liquid is constructed. The distribution of the buoyancy frequency is given by an analytical representation that is the closest to the measured natural distribution in terms of the mean square deviation in most areas of the World Ocean. Characteristic beam patterns of propagation for this type of wave perturbations of the medium in the presence of an underwater internal waves channel are constructed.
Keywords: internal waves, buoyancy frequency, internal waves channel.

GEOLOGY AND PETROGEOCHEMICAL FEATURES OF THE KUMAK ORE FIELD CARBON DEPOSITS
A.V. Kolomoets 1, A.V. Snachev 2

1 Orenburg State University, 460018, Orenburg, Pobedy ave., 13
2 Institut of Geology UFIC RAN, 450008, Ufa, Karl Marks str., 16/2

Abstract. The geological structure of the Kumak ore field is considered. Special attention is paid to the carbonaceous shales of the Bredinsky formation (C1bd), which compose elongated submeridional blocks of the Anichov Graben. Rocks are variably saturated with carbonaceous matter. According to chemical and thermogravimetric analyses, the content Сорг in the rocks reaches 11.1%, which allows to classify the considered rocks as carbonaceous. It is demonstrated that black shales fall into the fields of terrigenous-carbon and siliceous-carbon formations. Carbonaceous matter is represented by two types: weakly metamorphosed sapropel sedimentation-diagenetic and metamorphic graphite. Terrigenous high-alumina planting material underwent minimal transfer and was formed mainly due to the destruction of rocks of the main composition, as well as the products of erosion of acidic volcanites at the base of the Bredinsky formation section. Sedimentary rocks experienced high degree of weathering typical to humid climate with oxidative and partially sub-oxidative conditions. The deposition of material occurred during transition from riftogenic to collisional geodynamic conditions. Black-shale deposits of the Kumаk ore field according to the parameter Na2O / K2O = 0.62 units is attribued to the normal potassium formation type, which is typical for deposits with mainly gold-sulfide mineralization.
Keywords: South Ural, East Ural uplift, Anikhovsky Graben, bredinskaya formation, carbon shale, Kumak ore field, gold.

DETERMINATION OF THE TIME VARIABLE POWER OF A POINT POLLUTION SOURCE IN THE AZOV SEA BASED ON A VARIATIONAL ASSIMILATION ALGORITHM
V.S. Kochergin, S.V. Kochergin

Marine Hydrophysical Institute of RAS, 299011, Sevastopol, Kapitanskaya str., 2

Abstract. Сalculations for the Azov Sea water area are made using a model of passive admixtire transport. The variational procedure of pollution source power identification variable in time is implemented on the basis of minimization of the forecast quality quadratic functional and the adjoint problems solution. The simulation results are obtained under the North-Eastern wind influence prevailing in this area.
Keywords: transport model, adjoint equations, identification of pollution sources, Azov sea.

STUDY OF THE VORTEX FLOW INDUCTOR EFFECT ON FORM OF TWO IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS INTERFACE
I.V. Naumov 1, T.O. Chaplina 2, E.V. Stepanova 2

1 S.S. Kutateladze Institute of thermophysics SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Ac. Lavrentiev ave., 1
2 A. Ishlinsky Institute for problems in mechanics RAS, 119526, Moscow, Vernadskogo ave., 101-1

Abstract. The results of experimental studies of the vortex flow of immiscible liquids of different densities two-layer system are presented. The research is performed in two independent laboratories, on facilities with different geometries, where the vortex flow generation is provided by rotation of inductor either from top (upper endwall of cylinder) or from bottom of liquid volume. The results allow to draw conclusions about the set of parameters, such as the location and size of the inductor, that significantly affect the phase boundary form in this type of flow. It is found that gravity reduces (increases) the interface deformation in the case of the upper (lower) location of the flow inductor. It is also shown that when changing the size of the inductor that generates vortex structure, it is possible to provide flow modes overlapping, where the interface deformation occurs according to the same scenario, both when rotation induced from above or from below.
Keywords: complex vortex, vortex flow modeling, phase boundary, immiscible liquids, free surface.

INVESTIGATION OF INFLUECE OF THE SCREW PROPELLER WORKING TOWARDS THE FLOW ON PARAMETERS OF NEAR WATER AEROSOL
V.N. Nosov 1, S.G. Ivanov 1, V.I. Pogonin 1, S.B. Kaledin 2, E.A. Zevakin 1, N.A. Zavyalov 1

1 Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry V.I. Vernadsky RAS, 119991, Moscow, Kosygina str., 19
2 N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 105005, Moscow, 2nd Bauman str., 5

Abstract. Laboratory studies of hydrodynamic disturbance effects caused by the screw propeller working towards the flow on the disperse composition of the near water aerosol are presented. The marine conditions were simulated by aerated water in the flow-through tank. The elastic scattering of laser beam by aerosol was used for monitoring. The pulses of laser scattering by aerosol particles within the lens focal area of photosensor module (based on photomultiplier FEU-157) were registered for fixed interval 300 s. The distribution of scattering pulse amplitudes proportional to aerosol particle sizes was represented in histogram form. The screw on-off difference histograms were used to study screw-caused hydrodynamic disturbance effect on aerosol disperse composition. The data obtained indicate that the addition of hydrodynamic disturbances formed by the screw propeller working towards the aerated flow leads to increasing the proportion of larger aerosol particles.
Keywords: hydrodynamic disturbance, aerosol scattering, laser radiation, histograms, aerosol disperse composition.

GEOCHEMISTRY OF THE WORLD RIVER RUNOFF OF SOLID MATTER
V.S. Savenko

M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of geography, 119991, Moscow, Leninskie gory, 1

Abstract. Data on the composition of suspended matter and bottom sediments of the world’s rivers are summarized and estimates of the average concentrations of 76 chemical elements are given. It is shown that content of the main petrogenic elements in river suspensions appropriately varies depending on the physico-geographical conditions in catchment areas. For lowland rivers, increase in the average annual temperature and humidity leads to increase in the content of aluminum, iron, and potassium, while the concentrations of silicon, magnesium, calcium, and sodium decrease. In mountainous regions, similar differences occur when comparing areas with humid and dry climate. The weighted average concentrations of the main petrogenic elements within the accuracy of calculations coincide with the average composition of clays and clay shales of the continents sedimentary shell. For most trace elements, the average content in the total solid runoff and in the upper part of continental crust differs no more than 2 times, which does not go beyond the accuracy of estimates. Enrichment of the solid matter runoff by carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and iodine is associated with the presence of significant quantities of biogenic organic matter. Enhanced (from 2 to 3 times) concentrations of zinc, cadmium, lead, silver, and arsenic, as well as selenium (an excess of 8 times) in the solid matter runoff can be of both anthropogenic and natural origin.
Keywords: river runoff, suspended matter, bottom sediments, petrogenic elements, trace elements, anthropogenic factor, climate factor.

RESEARCH OF REFLECTION OF ELASTIC WAVES FROM ROUGH BORDERS (PHYSICAL MODELING)
K.V. Fedin 1, 2, 3, Yu.I. Kolesnikov 1, G.A. Dugarov 1, R. N. Beysembaev 1, 2

1 Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, pr. Koptyuga, 3
2 Novosibirsk State University, 630090, Novosibirsk, st. Pirogova, 2
3 Novosibirsk State Technical University, 630073, Novosibirsk, Karl Marx Avenue, 20

Abstract. The results of physical modeling show that the effect of the roughness of the boundary on its reflectivity depends on the ratio of the characteristic roughness size and wavelength. The roughness of the boundaries leads to a decrease in the effective reflection coefficients at subcritical and to their increase at supercritical angles of incidence. Changing the azimuth of the plane of incidence with respect to the direction of roughness significantly affects the reflection coefficients only at supercritical angles of incidence.
Keywords: rough borders, reflection of elastic waves, physical modeling.

MADAGASCAR CHIP FROM INDIA
A.A. Schreider, A.E. Sazhneva

Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117997, Moscow, Nahimovskiy ave. 36

Abstract. Details of the initial connection of Madagascar with India are still discussed in the literature. The data analysis made it possible to identify the features of the split process and to compile an updated paleogeodynamic reconstruction of the junction zone of these continental links of Gondwana.
Keywords: Indian Ocean, Eulerian poles, paleogeodynamics, Madagascar, India.

THE MINI-GOLF BALL BALANCE IDENTIFICATION IN HIGH-VISCOUS LIQUID
Yakovlev B.A.

Russian State University of Physical Education, Sport, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE), 105122, Moscow, Sireneviy blvd, 4

Abstract. The balance of balls in golf and mini-golf significantly affects the result. The balance of mini-golf balls due to their high relative density can be determined in a liquid with a slightly higher relative density than the ball. The liquid used to determine the mini-golf ball balance is of high viscosity, and the usual method of determining the balance leads to significant inaccuracy. A method for balanced balls selection in a high-viscosity liquid is proposed. The longer the time to rotate the ball by 90o from a position where its center of mass is on a vertical line above the center of volume, the more balanced is the ball.
Keywords: balanced ball, mini Golf, viscous liquid.