«Processes in GeoMedia» Volume 3 (12) 2017

ON THE ROLE OF COLD INVASION IN THE FORMATION OF THE BLACK SEA WINTER SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY
T.M. Bayankina, A.A. Sizov, A.V. Jurovskij
Marine Hydrophysical Institute of the RAS

The processes of the Black Sea surface temperature (SST) winter anomaly formation during the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phases NAO ≥ 1 and NAO ≤ –1 are considered. It has been found that air cold invasions into the sea area occur more often during the years of the NAO ≥ 1, while the average temperature of the air entering the water area during the NAO ≥ 1 is lower than during the NAO ≤ –1.  Drifter measurements showed that extreme air cold invasions during the NAO ≥ 1 can form a negative SST anomaly in the deepwater part of the western subregion of the sea (42 – 44° N, 29 – 32° E) for 1 – 2 days, while for the SST decrease by 0.1°C the negative air temperature lowering by about 3°C was sufficient. The process of rapid SST reduction at the extreme air cold invasion was conditionally called the mechanism of impulse cooling.

Keywords: sea surface temperature, atmospheric forcing, anomalies, heat exchange, North Atlantic swings, air cold invasions.

pp. 565 – 572.

 

THE SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF DISTRIBUTION OF THE BUOYANCY FREQUENCY IN THE CHUKCHI SEA
A.E. Bukatov, E.A. Pavlenko
Marine Hydrophysical Institute of the RAS

The spatial and temporal variability of the climatic features of the water stability regional distribution of Chukchi Sea were studied on the basis of analysis on the data WOA13 (World Ocean Atlas 2013 NOAA) at a resolution of 0.25°×0.25° in latitude and longitude for the period 1955–2012 years. The article considers the variability of the intra-annual spatial distribution of the maximum value of the Brunt-Vaisala frequency (buoyancy frequency), which is the characteristic of the vertical density stratification of waters. Seasonal and spatial variability of the depth of the maximum of the buoyancy frequency for the Chukchi Sea regions with a different hydrological structure and geostrophic water circulation is considered.

Keywords: Chukchi Sea, density stratification of waters, buoyancy frequency, Brunt-Vaisala frequency, density jump layer, variability of density stratification.

pp. 573 – 579.

 

THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE WIND FIELD VARIABILITY OVER THE INDIAN OCEAN ZONES WITH THE SOUTH OSCILLATION INDEX BY MEANS OF PRINCIPLE COMPONENT ANALYSIS
I.A. Gomorev 1, F.A. Pogarskii 2, V.G. Polnikov 2
1 FSBI Hydrometcentre of Russia
2 Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the RAS, pogarskiy@ifaran.ru

The paper explores the relations between the surface wind variability between the zones in the Indian Ocean (IO) and the Southern Oscillation Index by means of  Principle Component Analysis. The relations between Arabian and Bengal wind modes is established with using the correlation of corresponding principle components, as well as their independence from the South zone circulation mode, which confirms the previously obtained results of the authors. The greatest correlations of the principle components with the South Oscillation Index and the ocean surface temperature are observed for the Southern subtropical zone in IO. The correlation analysis revealed that the increase in negative anomalies of the surface wind in the Indian Ocean was observed two months before the 1997 El Niño event.

Keywords: wind field, Indian Ocean, principle orthogonal functions, modes of variability, El-Niño South Oscillation, correlation coefficient.

pp. 580 – 585.

 

DETERMINATION OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF COLLOIDS BY THE METHOD OF SMALL ANGLE X-RAY SCATTERING WITH THE PURPOSE OF FORECASTING OF THE MIGRATION OF RELATED ECOTOXICANTS IN THE HYDROSPHERE
O.A. Zakharchenko 1,2, D.S. Molodenskiy 2, E.A. Shirshin 1
1 M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University
2 NRC «Kurchatov Institute»

The physicochemical parameters of colloidal solutions affecting the processes of transport of substances associated with colloids (radionuclides, proteins, etc.) in water are considered. A review of the methods for studying these parameters of solutions is made with the aim of predicting the possibility of transferring harmful substances that associate with the colloids in the geosphere. The advantages of the method of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in the study of interactions between particles in solution during the formation of colloids are shown, which makes it promising for investigating and controlling the migration of substances (in particular, ecotoxicants) in the geosphere.

Keywords: ecotoxicants, interaction potentials, small-angle X-rayscattering, DLVO theory.

pp. 586 – 592.

 

SEASONAL VARIABILITY OF SELF-CLEANING ABILITY OF THE COASTAL WATERS ECOSYSTEM OF THE HERAKLEIAN PENINSULA IN RELATION TO PETROLEUM PRODUCTS
V.A. Ivanov 1, E.E. Sovga 1, E.V. Katunina 2, E.A. Kotelyanets 1
1 Marine Hydrophysical Institute of the RAS, science-mhi@mail.ru
2 N.N. Zubov SOIN, Sebastopol branch

Materials of the two oceanographic surveys from «Biruza» on May 20–21, 2016 and September 12–13, 2016 are used to study the seasonal variability of petroleum concentration in the waters off the Herakleian Peninsula, where lies the main line of Sevastopol waste water discharge. Environmental load on the studied water bassins is related to the impact of Sevastopol bays (Sevastopol, Karantinnaya, Kruglaya, Streletskaya, Kazachya, Kamyshovaya and Balaklava Bay). Assimilative capacity of the micropolygon ecosystem is calculated for petroleum products with seasonal dynamics. The results show that in spring, the area under research is characterized as ecologically favorable in relation to petroleum products, while according to the results of the autumn shots in 2015 and 2016, in autumn the water area is found to be ecologically endangered. The higher the level for the threshold limit value (TLV) exceedance of petroleum products in the area, the longer it will take the ecosystem to assimilate the petroleum products and to decrease the concentration to the TLV.

Keywords: petroleum products, seasonal dynamics, water area, Herakleian Peninsula, assimilation capacity, ecological well-being, «synoptic method», waste waters.

pp. 593 – 600.

 

TO THE QUESTION ABOUT THE FORMATION MECHANISM OF TROPICAL CYCLONE
A.M. Nechaev 1, A.A. Solovyev 1, D.A. Soloviev 2
1 M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, faculty of geography
2 P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the RAS

The hypothesis of a hydro mechanical mechanism for the formation of ascending currents of dry and moist air in the atmosphere is discussed in the context of the model of a tropical cyclone as a non-equilibrium energy generation system. The tropical cyclone is considered as an atmospherical disturbance, and is formed under the conditions of dynamic interaction of vortex flows and emerging warm cores of moist air liberating energy in the environment. The triggering mechanism for the conversion of homogeneous atmospheric vortex into a hurricane is due to the formation of the Gunnа’ instability of the intensity of atmospheric air flows with change in pressure in a medium that has a substantially redistributed kinematics and dynamic characteristics. The identification of a hydrodynamic mechanism for the generation of ascending currents as the processes of intense atmospheric vortex formation is presented as an illustration.

Keywords: vortex, hurricane, Gunnа instability, vortex formation mechanism, warm core.

pp. 601 – 609.

 

FEATURES OF SOLID AND SOLUBLE MARKERS MOOVEMENT ON THE SURFACE OF VORTEX FLOW
V.P. Pakhnenko1, E.V. Stepanova2, T.O. Chaplina1
1 M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, faculty of physics
2 A.Yu. Ishlinsky Institute for Problems in Mechanics of the RAS

The work is devoted to measuring the characteristics of the vortex flow on the basis of observed marker displacement, and to visualization of the vortex flow structure by introducing different types of markers in the flow. The study is performed at the experimental facility with cylindrical operating volume, where flow with free surface is generated by the rotating disc-activator at the bottom endwall. The method for the automatic processing of recorded marker displacements on the free surface of the vortex flow is based on conversion of raster images into vector representation, which allows considerably quicken the experiment results processing. The experiments show pronounced dependence of the parameters characterizing the marker displacement on the vortex flow surface, on shape, size and physical characteristics of the marker. Solid marker is driven into rotation around the center of the free surface together with revolution around its own axis. Angular velocities of rotation and revolution are bounded by the functional relation, that is also determined by the parameters of the flow and marker characteristics (such as volume, mass, size and shape).

Keywords: compound vortex, solid and soluble markers, vortex flow structure, automatic experimental data processing.

pp. 610 – 617.

 

ONSET OF CONVECTION IN NEAR-SURFACE LAYER OF THE LIQUID
Yu.Yu. Plaksina, Yu.K. Rudenko, A.V. Pushtaev, N.A. Vinnichenko, A.V.Uvarov
M.V. Lomonosov Mosccow State University, faculty of physics

Onset of convective motion in near-surface layers of water and ethanol due to heating of the liquid surface part with IR heater or due to exposing part of the surface to evaporative cooling is studied using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). In case of partial heating of the upper liquid layer the boundary conditions at the surface are shown to be important. In ethanol, dynamics of which is well described using Pearson boundary conditions, non-uniform heating is accompanied with rapid motion of the surface, associated with Marangoni effect. In water, due to presence of «elastic film» at the surface, Rayleigh convection is dominant. Maximal velocity in ethanol, heated by IR radiation, is observed at the surface, whereas in water velocity maximum is located in the lower part. In case of heating from above vortices are located near the surface, which differs from the cooling case, where convective vortices occupy the whole volume. Also, Marangoni convection during cooling of ethanol results in fast decrease of horizontal gradients of temperature near the surface. However, at later stages Rayleigh convection is developed.

Keywords: Rayleigh convection, Marangoni convection, boundary conditions at liquid surface, Particle Image Velocimetry.

pp. 618 – 625.

 

ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETERS OF SORPTION–SEDIMENTATION SILICIUM TRANSPORT WITH CALCIUM CARBONATE IN THE WORLD-WIDE OCEAN
A.V. Savenko1, V.S. Savenko2
1 M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, faculty of geology
2 M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, faculty of geography

Sorption of dissolved silicium from seawater on calcite and aragonite was experimentally studied. It was established that the sorption value linearly depends on silicium content in a wide range of concentrations (0–650 mmol Si/m3). The sorption value makes 0.15+/-0.03 mmol Si/kg CaCO3 at the typical for deep water masses concentration of dissolved silicium equal 120 mmol/m3. It was shown that the sorption–sedimentation mechanism of silicium transport with precipitating carbonate material brings negligible contribution to its geochemical balance.

Keywords: silicium, calcium carbonate, sorption, seawater, world-wide ocean.

pp. 626 – 631.

 

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS DEFORMATION PROPERTIES DEPENDENCE ON LOADING HISTORY
Yu.V. Sidorin, K.B. Ustinov, Yu.F. Kovalenko, E.V. Stepanova
A.Yu. Ishlinskii Institute for problems in mechanics of the RAS, ustinov@ipmnet.ru

The tests of cubic specimens of the sedimentary rocks under the complex triaxial non-uniform loading independent along three mutually perpendicular axes were performed. The experiments were aimed to find the influence of small-cycle loading (in form of generalized shear) on rocks deformation characteristics transformation in directions coaxial and normal to the orientation of maximal preliminarily applied load. The growth of the modulus of elasticity in the direction of enclosed significant compressive stress have been registered during the tests. Also the reduction of elastic hysteresis is registered along the axis, while the other changes were under the experiment resolution. In other directions such changes either have not been registered, or are not shown pronounced enough. The change of the elastic modulus in one direction after loading evidences the possibility of induced anisotropy occurance and of material symmetry change as a result of stress state change.

Keywords: rock, triaxial tests, anisotropy, loading history, generalized shear.

pp. 632 – 637.

 

OPTICAL METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING THE AGGREGATION OF PARTICLES OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN AQUEOUS MEDIA OVER A WIDE RANGE OF CONCENTRATIONS
S.M. Shakirov, I.V. Perminova, V.V. Fadeev
M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University

The study of aggregation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) at different concentrations in the solution was made based on the methods of fluorescence spectroscopy picosecond resolution. The measurements were carried out with samples of humic substances at different concentrations to detect differences in the fluorescence anisotropy of these samples. Fluorescence anisotropy values were obtained for several samples at different radiation detection wavelengths. Also, anisotropy decay kinetics were obtained for each measurement at different concentrations at different emission detection wavelengths. The absence of a significant change in the fluorescence anisotropy parameter at various concentrations was revealed, however, when measuring the time of rotational correlation, a decrease in this parameter was observed with increasing concentration, which may be a consequence of aggregation of HS in the solution.

Keywords: fluorescence spectroscopy, picosecond resolution spectroscopy, humic substances, aggregation, fluorescence decay kinetics.

pp. 638 – 644.

 

FEATURES QUATERNARY SEDIMENTATION AND BOTTOM CURRENTS IN THE SCAN BASIN (SCOTIA SEA)
Al.A. Schreider 1, A.A. Schreider 2, A.E. Sazhneva 2, J. Galindo–Zaldivar 3, Ruano 3, A. Maldonado 4, Y. Martos 4, F. Lobo 4, F. Bohoyo 5
1LLC «Scientific-research institute for economics and conduction management in gas industry»
2 P.P. Shirshov Oceanological Institute of the RAS
3 University of Granada
4 Andaluzian Institute of Earth Sciences
5 Spanish Geological and Mineralogical Institute

Using high-resolution parametric seismoprofiling system TOPAS PS 18/40 obtained the first detailed data on quaternary sedimentation in the Scan Basin. In the process of integrated interpretation failed to clarify the direction of nearbottom currents along the basin and come to the conclusion that initialization has occurred not later than 250 thousands years ago.

Keywords: high-resolution seismometry, sediment thickness, sedimentation rate, nearbottom currents, Scan basin, Scotia Sea.

pp. 645 – 649.