Scientific journal “Processes in GeoMedia” № 1 (10) 2017

Аннотации статей

 

THE PROBLEMS OF THE COASTAL ZONE AT THE ECOLOGY YEAR OF RUSSIA

N.N. Dunaev

Институт океанологии им. П.П. Ширшова РАН

Humanity was imbued with the awareness of environmental problems only in the second half of the XX century, and was convinced of the restriction of its ability to use and transformation of the environment. This applies especially to the coastal zone of the seas, which is no notable for resistance to natural and anthropogenic influences. The most complete information about the status and possible changes in the coastal zone can be received only with a system approach in consideration it of a unit of natural and territorial complex (NTC) with the specifics of Nature components peculiar to it. In this article we discuss the necessity to study the recent tectonics as one of the most important factors which predetermine the structure and functioning of coastal zone and without taking it into account the reliability of the assessment of its current state and prospects of development is small.

Keywords: ecology, coastal zone, neotectonics, system.

pp. 385-395.

 

PROBABILITY DENSITY FUNCTION OF THE SLOPES MODULI

A.S. Zapevalov

Морской гидрофизический институт РАН

The influence of non-linear effects in the field of sea surface waves on the statistical characteristics of the slope in the sea surface is analyzed. Probability density function of the slopes modulus of the sea surface is constructed based on the empirical Cox-Munk model and investigated its properties. The boundaries of the area of change of the slopes modulus within which the proposed function correctly describes its distribution are determined. Quantitative estimates of the deviation of the probability density function of the sea surface slopes modulus from the model of linear wave fields are obtained. Values of third- and fourthorder cumulants orthogonal component of the slope vector defined by spacebased optical scanners were used in numerical calculations.

Keywords: sea surface, slopes moduli, Cox-Munk model, Gram-Charlier distribution law.

pp. 396-402.

 

ON ANALYSIS OF DOPPLER EFFECT FOR LATERAL WAVE

Yu.M. Zaslavsky

Институт прикладной физики РАН

Calculation formulas described Doppler frequency shift and amplitude changes of lateral wave are derived in the case of its excitation by the acoustical source movable in parallel and normally to the media interface also. Distinction of wave excitation efficiency by different directions of the source motion relatively immovable receiver situated near boundary is considered and possibility of its practical usage by recorded wave type selection is discussed.

Keywords: frequency shift, lateral wave amplitude, movable acoustical source.

pp. 403-409.

 

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF THE RIGHT AND LEFT BAYS ASYMMETRY IN THE TIDAL WAVES DYNAMICS

V.N. Zyryanov, M.K. Chebanova

Институт водных проблем РАН

The paper presents the results of the laboratory modeling of the earth rotation impact on the origination of the asymmetry of a tidal wave evolution in the curvilinear bays: with the right bend (against the earth rotation direction) and with the left bend (in the direction of the earth rotation). Comparative analysis of bays shows that the majority of all bays with significant tides have the right bend (against the earth rotation direction). Laboratory experiment on the rotating setup shows that earth rotation can be the reason of asymmetry in the tidal wave propagation in the right and left bays. The explanation given is based on the potential vorticity conservation law. Due to the conservation of potential vorticity a water column gets an additional cyclonic vorticity when entering the bay. It results in the lateral shear stress growth in the right bays and decrease in the left bays. As a result the dissipation of a tidal energy in the right bays is lower and the amplitude of a tide is higher than in the left bays.

Keywords: laboratory experiment, estuary; tidal wave, confusor effect, turbulent shear stress effect, seishes, curvilinear bays.

pp. 410-418.

 

MODELING TRANSPORT SUSPENDED WASTE OUTLET OF THE CAPE FIOLENT

V.A. Ivanov, Ju.N. Ryabtsev

Морской гидрофизический институт РАН

Cruise studies carried out in the area of the main wastewater discharge of Sevastopol found underwater and surface layers of high turbidity containing chemical pollutants which are typical for sewage discharges into the shore adjacent areas. Simulation was made to determine the causes of the detected problems and features of distribution in propagation of suspended matter. For calculation of currents we used the generalized to the case of three-dimensional Rayleigh friction linear barotropic-dimensional model. Scenarios spread slurry when the winds all the main points of the compass in the continuous discharge of sewage to the winds of the western and eastern areas of the discrete discharge of effluents to the wind situation in the period of field work with continuous discharge of sewage. According to the simulation results we explain formation of contamination in the area along the coast in the surface and subsurface layers.

Keywords: polygon, transfer of slurry, pollution, sewage, maximum concentration, upwelling area, downwelling area.

pp. 419-426.

 

IDENTIFICATION OF GEOMECHANICAL MODEL PARAMETERS USING GEOPHYSICAL AND LABORATORY METHODS

V.I. Karev, N.I. Shevtsov

Институт проблем механики им. А.Ю. Ишлинского РАН

The necessity for involvement in the development of hydrocarbon fields with hard to recover reserves lying in complex geological conditions, is the cause of increased attention of the producing and service companies to geomechanical modeling fields. The paper provides an overview of the main methods for determining the rock characteristics, which are needed for the creating the geomechanical model of oil field. Geophysical and laboratory approaches to measuring mechanical and filtration-capacitive characteristics of rocks forming reservoir are described and the main differences between these approaches are shown. The task of finding the link between static (laboratory approach) and dynamic (geophysical approach) elastic characteristics of rocks has been posed. The way to solve the problem by upgrading the true triaxial loading apparatus created at IPMech RAS is proposed.

Keywords: geomechanical model, logging methods, true triaxial loading.

pp. 427-434.

 

INTRA-ANNUAL STORM DEFORMATIONS OF SANDY BEACH BY AN EXAMPLE OF KAMCHIA-SHKORPILOVTSI COAST (BLACK SEA, BULGARIA)

O.A. Kuznetsova, Ya.V. Saprykina

Институт океанологии им. П.П. Ширшова РАН

Государственный океанографический институт им. Н.Н. Зубова

This paper presents an estimation of intra-annual relief deformations on Bulgarian sandy coast, computed using xBeach model, and an additional analysis of impact of period and wave height changes together with storm duration on rate of the bottom relief deformation and coastline movement. It was found that the scenario of wave action on the beach for each month of the year is characterized by erosion near the shoreline and accumulation in the seaward part of profile. Wave height affects absolute value of the erosion rate while the period affects both value of erosion and profile stabilisation speed (storm equilibrium profile development). The greatest eformation of the relief occurs in January-March (Hs=1.7–1.9 m). Shoreline recession after 21 hours of storm averages 18m for waves with T=10 s and 10 m for waves with T=6. The lowest relief deformations occur in June-August (Hs = 0.8–0.9 m) and reaches 10 m for waves with period of 10 s and 5 m for waves with T=6 s. Based on the data on the significant wave height it is only possible to make a qualitative assessment of trends in coastal relies changes. For quantitative evaluations, including velocity profile generation balance, the maximum and minimum amounts of beach degradation values, it is necessary to know waves period and evolution of storm activity duration.

Keywords: coastal zone, storm deformations, xBeach, equilibrium profile.

pp. 435-444.

 

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF STOCK CURRENTS ON THE EXAMPLE OF INFLOW OF WATER FROM THE VISTULA LAGOON INTO COASTAL WATERS OF THE BALTIC SEA THROUGH THE BALTIC STRAIT

I.V. Poterukhina

Атлантическое отделение Института океанологии им. П.П. Ширшова РАН

Балтийский Федеральный университет им. И. Канта

The analysis of the variability of stock currents on the example of income Vistula Lagoon waters in the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea through the Baltic Strait with the condition changes the characteristic scale and density difference. The influence of differential density with different linear scales to change the trajectory of the jet drain.

Keywords: stock currents, numerical simulation, excessive density.

pp. 445-450.

 

GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF THE GAKKEL RIDGE SEDIMENTS BY MEANS OF MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

V.Yu. Rusakov, T.G. Kuzmina

Институт геохимии и аналитической химии им. В.И. Вернадского РАН

The article discusses the chemical composition of the column of sediments PS 70/306-3 selected in the Eastern part of Gakkel ridge. These data are processed by methods of factor analysis, namely, the R-modification varimax

rotation. The four most important factors of the first order are reduced to pair of the second order factors. the main climatic events of the late Pleistocene and Holocene over the last 195 thousands of years are described on basis of the second order factors.

Keywords: chemical composition of bottom sediments, factor analysis, climatic events of the late Pleistocene-Holocene, the Gakkel ridge, Arctic ocean.

pp. 451-461.

 

LEVEL OF EUTROPHICATION OF THE SHALLOW WATER AREAS BASED ON THE SIMULATED E-TRIX INDEX

K.A. Slepchuk, T.V. Khmara, E.V. Mankovskaya

Морской гидрофизический институт РАН

The E-TRIX index is based on four state variables: chlorophyll “a”, oxygen as the absolute percentage deviation from oxygen saturation, dissolved inorganic nitrogen and total phosphorus. It makes possible to carry out correct comparative analysis of the ecological state of various water areas based on trophic level. To calculate the index in the Sevastopol Bay and the Dnieper-Bug estuary we simulated the annual dynamics of environmental parameters using the onedimensional water quality model, which was calibrated for the referred water areas. The annual E-TRIX index variations in the bay and estuary are compared; the correlation coefficients between E-TRIX and its parameters are calculated; the contributions of E-TRIX variables are estimated. The Dnieper-Bug estuary water is shown to have higher trophic index than the Sevastopol Bay water.

Keywords: eutrophication, E-TRIX index, water quality model, Sevastopol Bay, Dnieper-Bug estuary.

pp. 462-469.

 

PALEOMAGNETIC ANOMALIES IN THE ARCTIC OCEAN LAPTEV SEA

A.A. Schreider, Al.A. Schreider, M.S. Klyuev, A.E. Sajneva

Институт океанологии им. П.П. Ширшова РАН

The new map of linear magnetic anomalies anomalies for the Eurasian basin Laptev segment is made. The domestic geomagnetic investigations for the first time allow to determine paleomagnetic anomaly C25 and estimate the time of transfer rifting to spreading process as about 59 ma. The Euler pole of rotation for Eurasiian basin Laptev segment first time calculated and presented by using border between continent and ocean crust.

Keywords: Arctic, anomaly magnetic field, seafloor spreading, Laptev sea.

pp. 470-474.