## Scientific journal “Processes in GeoMedia” № 4 (9) 2016

Аннотации статей

**THE PROBLEMS OF COASTAL AREA RECONSTRUCTION OF HERSONISSOS**

**А.А. ****Bukatov**

**ФГБУК «Государственный историко-археологический музей-заповедник**

**«Херсонес Таврический»**

The article provides an analysis of influence on the abrasion process on the Eastern coast of Chersonesos settlement (within the modern Sevastopol city limits) the hydrodynamic and tectonic factors. On the basis of Azov-Black sea underwater expedition materials (the entrance to the Quarantine Bay area, under guidance of V.D. Blavatsky, 1960), ground excavations of the Eastern coastal area (under guidance of I.A. Antonova, 1967) and the results of modern underwater archaeological research it is shown that the possible width of the lost coastline here is up to 80–85 m from the II century BC until now. The intensity of the abrasion process within this coastal area is due to several factors, and, perhaps, tectonic processes, that have intensified during this time period.

Ключевые слова: abrasion, refraction of waves, fluctuations, climatic changes, tectonic factor, phanagorian regression, Quarantine Bay, the cornices collapse, coastline reconstruction.

pp. 289-296.

**SPECTRAL WAVE MARINE CLIMAT 1. ****History of the study, problem formulation, data input**

*A.V. Bukhanovskiy, L.J. Lopatoukhin*

*Санкт-Петербургский Государственный университет информационных технологий, механики и оптики
Санкт-Петербургский Государственный университет*

The definition of the climate and wave climate is presented. The main traditional approaches to wave climate calculations are described. The modern approach to wave climate calculations is formulated. The main scientific achievements which are resulted to this approach are outlined. The approach based on numerical hydrodynamic simulation with consequent statistical treatment is used. As a result during 2003–2010 five fundamental handbooks of wind and wave climate of the Azov, Baltic, Barents White, Bering, Kara, Caspian, Okhotsk, North, Mediterranean, Black, Japan seas are published by Russian maritime register of shipping. The special attention is given to nontraditional statistics, namely to climatic wave spectra, spatial characteristics of the storm, freak (rogue) waves, joint extreme statistics.

Keywords: *wind waves, wave climate – approaches to assessment, reference data.*

pp. 297-303.

**DEEP-WATER EXPERIMENTS WITH NATURAL GAS HYDRATE**

**A.V. Egorov, R.I. Nigmatulin, A.N. Rozhkov**

**Институт океанологии им. П.П. Ширшова РАН**

**Институт проблем механики им. А.Ю. Ишлинского РАН**

This paper focuses on the heat and mass exchange processes in methane hydrate fragment during it transport in the basin from the gas hydrate stability zone to the surface. The phenomena were investigated in Lake Baikal in situ. After being extracted from methane hydrate deposit on the lake bottom, hydrate fragment was placed into container with transparent walls and grid-like bottom. The hydrate fragment did not change as it was brought up to the top order of the gas hydrate stability zone. The temperature of the water in the container remained the same as the temperature of the ambient water ~+3.5°С. However as soon as container crossed the top border of the gas hydrate stability zone the beginning of the decomposition of hydrate and its transformation into free methane gas was occurred. The gas filled the container and displaced the water from container. We observed that thermometers in top and bottom parts of container recorded simultaneously the beginning of the noticeable decrease of temperature at the depth of 300 m. The temperature in the top part of container decreased up to the level of –0.25 °С which was reached at the depth about 200 m. Then temperature here remained constant up to the moment of surface destination. On the other hand the temperature in the bottom part of container reached the same level of –0.25 °С at the depth of only about 100 m and after that it did not vary during further ascent. Observed effects are explained by formation of gas phase in the container and ice layer on the hydrate surface caused by heat consumption during hydrate decomposition (self-conservation effect).

Keywords: methane, hydrate, temperature, deep-water, decomposition.

pp. 304-317.

**NONLINEAR STEFAN PROBLEM ON ICE GROWTH WITH AIR TEMPERATURE OSCILLATIONS**

**V.N. Zyryanov, S.A. Kruglihin**

**Институт водных проблем РАН**

Presented here are the results of researches of pumping-effect in processes of non-linear thermal diffusion in the ice and its influence on the ice growth. This effect occurs in boundary problems for non-linear parabolic equation like thermal conductivity equation with periodic boundary conditions. Its essence is in increase or decrease value of some property of entire area in relation with average value on the boundary by harmonic fluctuation this value on the boundary. Effect reveals by pumping or by exhaust matter in or from infinite. It is shown that non-linearity and pumping-effect in Stefan problem lead to additional exhaust about 14% of heat from ice crystallization zone relatively heat flow in linear Stefan problem.

Keywords: ice, ice growth, nonlinear thermal conductivity equation, periodic problem, pumping-effect, Stefan problem.

pp. 318-326.

**DEFORMATION STRENGTH AND FILTRATION PROPERTIES OF ROCKS FROM DEEP HORIZONS UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF TRUE TRIAXIAL LOADING**

**D.M. Klimov, V.I. Karev, Yu.F. Kovalenko, Yu.V.Sidorin**

**Институт проблем механики им. А.Ю. Ишлинского РАН**

The results of experiments to determine the deformation characteristics of rocks from the deep horizons (6 km or more) in the real stress conditions arising in the vicinity of wells and perforations at drilling and operation are presented. The experiments were conducted on a unique experimental facility – Triaxial Independent Loading Test System of IPMech RAS. Specimens for tests were cut from the core of exploratory wells of the Astrakhan gas condensate field. Physical modeling of the pressure reduction process in deep wells with different bottom geometry was performed. The studies have shown a principal possibility of increasing the permeability of rocks from deep horizons by stress condition control in the vicinity of the well.

Keywords: deep reservoirs, rock, well, the test facility, deformations, stresses, strength, elastic moduli.

pp. 327-332.

**THE EVOLUTION OF THE STRATIFIED VISCOUS FLUID FLOWS AROUND STARTING BODY**

**P.****V. ****Matyushin**

**Институт автоматизации проектирования РАН**

The paper presents the results of the mathematical modeling of the linearly density stratified incompressible viscous fluid (SIVF) flows (described by the Navier-Stokes equations in the Boussinesq approximation) around bluff bodies (a square cylinder and a circular disk with diameter d and thickness H=0.76d) uniformly moving in a horizontal direction with velocity U . For the first time the process of the formation of the first internal waves attached to the wake after the pulse start of the disk along its axis of symmetry is described in detail (Fr=1, Re=500). This process is compared with the similar process for the cylinder at Fr=0.1, Re=50, where Fr=U/(Nd) is the internal Froude number, Re=Ud/n is Reynolds number, N is buoyancy frequency, n is kinematic viscosity coefficient of SIVF. The established with time flows of SIVF around a cylinder (Fr=0.5, Re=50) and a disk (0.6<Fr<50, Re=50) have been also analyzed. The spatial vortex structures of the internal waves attached to the wake, consisting of two U-shaped spatial convective cells, have been visualized. The numerical method SMIF which is used for the modeling is briefly described. The calculations were performed on the supercomputers of JSCC RAS.

Keywords: stratified viscous fluid, diffusion, internal waves, convective cell, cylinder, disk, visualization, spatial vortex structure, mathematical modeling.

pp. 333-343.

**THE STUDY OF THE STRATIFICATION PROCESSES NEAR THE BLACK SEA OCEANOGRAPHIC PLATFORM**

**E.M. Poluboyarinova, I.N. Ivanova, A.A. Budnikov**

**МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова, Физический факультет**

The results of a study of the structures of velocity fields, temperature, specific conductivity near the stationary Oceanographic platform in the Blue Bay (Black sea, Katsiveli) are presented. the vertical distribution of the flow velocity and temperature in the presence of drift currents, near-bottom flow and internal waves of sieche’ nature is revealed according to field studies. A comparison of the theoretically calculated distribution of flow velocity with obtained data is made. The local upwelling is discovered.

Keywords: stratified flow, internal wave, local upwelling.

pp. 344-348.

**THE PRINCIPLE OF LEAST ACTION IN AN OCEAN CURRENTS DIAGNOSTIC CALCULATION**

**V.A. Sokolov**

The paper describes the method of sea currents calculations, based on data obtained by several hydrological stations not lying on one straight line, which is a generalization of the well-known «dynamic method». The solution obtained enables the calculation of the absolute values of the velocities for several hydrological stations. The resulting condition implementation simplifies the analysis of the currents efficiently.

Keywords: dynamic method, flow velocity, isopicnic circulation.

pp. 348-354.

**MODELING PHYSICAL PROCESS AND PHENOMENA ON THE BASIS FINIT DIMENSIONAL SAMPLING THEOREMS**

**E.N. Terentiev, N.E. Terentiev**

**МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова, Физический факультет; ****HiQo ****Solutions**

In modeling of the physical processes and phenomena in geophysics, radio physics, optics, we suggest use the Finite Dimensional Sampling Theorems (FDST) instead of Wiener-Kotelnikov theorem [1], and methods based on the difference schemes. Precise FDST operations are compatible with the convolution, analytical calculations, estimation of multiple integrals. Precise FDST operations are the basis for the development of mathematical models of physical processes, phenomena and for creating new devices with measuring components of computer technology in various fields.

Keywords: sampling theorem, the operations of mathematical analysis and field theory.

pp. 355-362.

**ONE OF THE STATISICAL METHODS OF ANOMALY DETECTION ON THE SEA SURFACE**

**V.I. Timonin, R.A. Kurbatov, V.N. Nosov**

**Институт геохимии и аналитической химии им. В.И. Вернадского РАН**

**Московский государственный технический университет им. ****Н. Э. Баумана**

The paper presents a statistical method for detecting occurrences of a trace of the vessel in the images of the sea surface. The method includes two parts of the analysis of digital representations of the image. The first part is the definition of surface parameters, among which the search is being conducted abnormal manifestations. The second part – the verification of the conformity of the structure of the anomalies of a geometric model of the track of the vessel. It is shown that the detection of anomalous areas on the sea surface is not always indicative of the existence of a trace of the ship in the picture. Presents an example of allocating on the satellite image anomalies, excited on the sea surface moving vessel.

Keywords: trail of the ship, track model ship, longitudinal waves, statistical characteristics, multidimensional sampling, anomaly.

pp. 363-370.

**METAL NANOPARTICLES DETECTION IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS USING LASER-INDUCED OPTICAL BREAKDOWN**

**E.A. Shirshin, T.N. Tikhonova, G.S. Budylin, V.V. Fadeev**

**МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова, Физический факультет**

The possibilities of optical radionuclides detection using the laser-induced breakdown effect are being discussed, including the case of metal nanoparticles. It is shown that the analysis of laser-induced breakdown parameters in solution provides for determination of heavy metals and metal nanoparticles, as well as their aggregates, which appear as a result of organic molecules sorption. The results of the present study can be used for remote and contact detection of radionuclides in aqueous environment, also in the presence of organic molecules.

Keywords: radionuclides, optical breakdown, spectrometry, laser monitoring.

pp. 371-377.

**AMERICAN–ANTARCTIC CONTINENTAL BRIDGE DESTRUCTION**

**A.A. Schreider, Al.A. Schreider, M.S. Klyuev, A.E. Sajneva**

**Институт океанологии им. П.П. Ширшова РАН**

The Euler poles and rotation angles, describing the process of the American–Antarctic Continental Bridge destruction in the Scotia sea for the first time were calculated. On this basis the first paleogeodynamical reconstruction of fragmentation at the areas of Herdman – Discovery – Bruce – Piri – Terror shoals is restored.

Keywords: American–Antarctic continental bridge, Scotia Sea, paleogeodynamics.

pp. 378-382.