Scientific journal “Processes in GeoMedia” № 1 (5) 2016

Аннотации статей

 

FEATURES OF SEISMOTECTONIC STRESS AND STRAIN BEFORE STRONG EARTHQUAKES

E.V. Voronina

МГУ им. М.В. Ломоносова

The observed features of stress and strain fields can serve as indicators of real earth destruction. An analysis of seismotectonic strain and stress in seismically active regions is carried out using data on earthquake focal mechanisms. In this paper, we investigate the spatial and temporal parameters of the seismotectonic deformation velocity field and the Lode–Nadai coefficient, which determines the type of the stress state of the environment. We used the data of the mechanisms of the focus of the earthquakes, preceding the strongest ones in 2005–2015 with a magnitude of more than 8, for a period of about 20 years. These were events in subduction zones of the Pacific seismic belt. Determining calm zones by the parameters of seismotectonic deformation velocity and analysis of the stressed state of the environment allow confidently to map areas of possible destruction of the environment in the future, which inspires some optimism in the prospects for solving the problem of earthquake prediction.

Keywords: seismotectonic deformation velocity, stress drop, the Lode–Nadai coefficient.

pp. 5-11.

 

CONDENSATION WATER RESOURCES IN NATURE

M.Yu. Berezkin, A.M. Zalikhanov, O.A. Sinyugin, A.A. Solovyev, K.V. Chekarev

МГУ им. М.В. Ломоносова

This article tackles the problem of fresh water scarcity across the globe. Traditional water supply does not provide sufficient resources for economic and social development even nowadays. We discuss availability and potential applications of water resources in atmosphere. Technological solutions to extract these resources are the key important issue.

Keywords: water resource, atmospheric condensation, water supply.

pp. 12-17.

 

HYDROPHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS METHODS APPLICATIONS IN NATURAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF PROCESSES IN WATER SYSTEMS

A.A. Budnikov, T.O. Chaplina, E.V. Stepanova

МГУ им. М.В. Ломоносова

Институт проблем механики им. А.Ю. Ишлинского РАН

The paper presents methods of complex hydrophysical studies aboard research ship, as well as the description and principle of operation of the hydro-physical instruments (multiparameter flow meter RCM 9 LW, the probe of the 6th generation YSI 600 OMS), which are widely used for measuring various hydrophysical characteristics such as the concentration of dissolved oxygen, conductivity, salinity, total mass of solute, resistivity, temperature, pH , depth, turbidity, etc. The results of hydrophysical structure study of Lake Pleshcheyevo, which have helped to clarify the structure of fields of hydrophysical parameters, are also presented. The obtained data on the distribution of dissolved oxygen is consistent with the data on the structure of currents in the water depth and near the surface.

Keywords: hydrophysical parameters, multiparameter flow meter, luminous absorption, concentration of dissolved oxygen.

pp. 18-27.

 

ANALYSIS OF THE DEPENDENCE OF ICE DRIFT IN THE AZOV SEA ON CHANGES OF THE VALUES OF DRAG COEFFICIENTS FOR WIND AND WATER

A.E. Bukatov, D.D. Zav’yalov, T.A. Solomaha

Морской гидрофизический институт РАН

The analysis of dependence of the dynamics of sea ice concentration on the ice strength parameter and the changes of drag coefficients at the interface air-ice and ice-water is investigated. Based on the comparison of satellite images of the ice situation in the Azov Sea, according to NOAA-18 satellite and the results of numerical experiments, it is shown that the viscous and to a lesser extent plastic properties of thin sea ice manifest themselves when the drift is directed from coast at the wind of the northern points of the compass. The drag coefficients for wind and water with the best agreement between simulation and observation of the field of the sea ice concentration in the Azov Sea are determined.

Keywords: sea ice, Azov Sea, dynamics of sea ice, ice drift, sea ice concentration.

pp. 28-36.

 

FEATURES OF INERTIAL CURRENTS DURING THE STORM ON MARCH 23-28, 2013 IN THE NORTH-EASTERN PART OF THE BLACK SEA

N.A. Diansky, V.V. Fomin

Институт вычислительной математики (ИВМ) РАН

Государственный океанографический институт (ГОИН)

Results of simulation of currents during the strong storm on March 23–24, 2013 in the North-Eastern part of the Black Sea performed by using the marine hydrodynamics model Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model (INMOM) are presented. It is shown that the excitation of inertial oscillations is caused by an abrupt change in wind speed. A bundle of inertial movements, which manifests itself in different amplitude and phase shift in quasihomogeneous surface layers determined by density stratification, is found. The intense oscillatory inertial flow is virtually unaffected by changes in the depth of the density jump and sea surface height. The latter means that high inertial current does not appear on satellite maps of sea surface height, which are used in particular to assess the field surface speed in seas and oceans.

Keywords: Black Sea, numerical modeling of currents, quasihomogeneous surface layer, inertial oscillations.

pp. 37-47.

 

THE FACTOR OF THE NEWEST TECTONICS IN THE DYNAMICS OF THE COASTS OF THE LARGE AQUATORIES OF THE LAND

N.N. Dunaev

Институт океанологии им. П.П. Ширшова РАН

The idea of this paper is to present the significance of the newest tectonics in the contemporary state and further development of the shores of large aquatories of the land. The specific role of the newest tectonics in modern dynamics and further development of the shores is analyzed on basis of areas, that are lake Baikal, Novosibirsk reservoir and the Ob river. To achieve this goal, the tasks of analyzing physical-geographical and geological-geomorphological conditions of the location of a particular area, paleogeographic environments of its evolution were performed and domestic methodologies for the expedition and laboratory research were involved.

Keywords: recent tectonics, coastal zone.

pp. 48-55.

 

MODELING INFRASOUND ACOUSTIC SPECTRUM GENERATED BY SEA SURFACE WAVES

A.S. Zapevalov, O.E. Kul’sha

Морской гидрофизический институт РАН

Черноморский филиал МГУ им. М.В. Ломоносова

The correctness of the spectral estimates infrasonic acoustic radiation generated by the sea surface depends on how accurately and completely the frequencyangular characteristics of surface waves are described. Existing models describe well the frequency spectrum of sea surface elevations at scales close to the scale of the dominant waves. Problems arise when constructing the function of the angular distribution of wave energy for angles where its values are small compared with their value of the in the main direction. Analysis based on currently the most common angular distribution functions shows that the modeling of acoustic radiation spectrum, in case of the presence of one wave system on the sea surface, critically depends on selection of the function of the angular distribution of wave energy. The level of generated acoustic radiation is only weakly dependent on the function of the angular distribution of wave energy in a situation where sea surface has two systems of waves propagating in opposite directions.

Keywords: sea surface, infrasound, the function of the angular distribution of wave energy.

pp. 56-61.

 

ASSESSMENT OF ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACTS ON THE ECOSYSTEM OF THE WATERS OF THE HERAKLEIAN PENINSULA IN THE VICINITY OF DEEP DRAINS

V.A. Ivanov, E.V. Katunina, E.E. Sovga

Морской гидрофизический институт РАН, science-mhi@mail.ru

Севастопольское отделение ГОИН им. Н.Н. Зубова

We investigated water area of the Herakleian Peninsula which is subject to indirect effect of Sevastopol bays (Sevastopolskaya, Kruglaya, Streletskaya, Kazachya, Kamyshovaya, Omega, and Balaclava Bays). This area is under anthropogenic load, which includes domestic and industrial wastewater outlets, river runoff, recreational areas along the coast. The main line of Sevastopol city sewage is in the study area (more than half of total urban  discharge). We used the materials of oceanographic surveys of the 2nd voyage of R/V Biruza on 10.09.2015, which included macro and micro-polygons, to analyze the oil content at the micro-polygon, and we used the new “synoptic method” to assess the assimilative capacity of the waters of the micro-polygon in relation to oil products and its environmental problems. We calculated time (t, days) the ecosystem needs to harmlessly assimilate the amount of the pollutant (in our case – oil products) to the TLV.

Keywords: oil products, water area, the Herakleian Peninsula, assimilative capacity, “synoptic method”, environmental welfare, waste water.

pp. 62-28.

 

STRESS-STRAIN STATE IN THE VICINITY OF A PERFORATED WELL WITH ACCOUNT FOR INELASTIC DEFORMATION

Yu.F. Kovalenko, K.B. Ustinov, A.B. Zhuravlev

Институт проблем механики им. А.Ю. Ишлинского РАН

The problem of determining stress-strain state in the vicinity of a well with perforation holes is solved in elastic-plastic formulation. Drucker–Prager model has been chosen as the criterion for transition to inelastic regime. The true triaxial tests of the specimens of sandstone from the Fedorovskoe deposit for determining elastic-plastic and strength parameters were carried using TILTS. For the obtained parameters of plasticity, the problems were solved in elasticplastic framework on determining stress-strain state in the vicinity of a well with one or two perforation holes. For comparison, the problem was also solved in the frame of elasticity. It is demonstrated that accounting for inelastic behavior leads to remarkable lowering of the stresses which bear the well vicinity. This should be accounted for creating the ways to increase oil recovery and for ensuring safe methods of wells drilling and processing.

Keywords: rock, stress, strain, plasticity, Drucker–Prager model, triaxial tests, well, perforation hole.

pp. 68-76.

 

THERMAL STRUCTURE OF THE COASTAL WATERS OF THE BALTIC SEA NEAR THE NORTH COAST OF THE KALININGRAD REGION

V.A. Krechik, V.A. Gritsenko

Атлантическое отделение Института океанологии им. П.П. Ширшова РАН

Балтийский федеральный университет им. И. Канта

The arrangement of the vertical thermal structure seasonal features for the Baltic Sea, in particular for shallow coastal water nearby the Kaliningrad peninsula, was made in reliance on data, gained from 1862 stations during the years 2013–2014. It can be clearly seen that summer heating has an influence till the depth of 40–42 meters in October. The thermocline depth fluctuates from 8–12 meters in spring to 18–31 meters in summer regarding to a section. Both winter and autumn profiles show presence of the upper mixed layer over the entire area of interest. Convection processes take place at the depth of 40–45 meters. Ultimately, gained evaluations enlarge already existing beliefs about coastal waters variability.

Keywords: thermal structure, typification, thermocline, climate.

pp. 77-84.

 

ON IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF DETECTION OF ANOMALY, INDUCED BY MARINE UNDERWATER SOURCE, WITH THE INTEGRATED USE OF LASER-OPTICAL REGISTRATION METHODS

V.N. Nosov, S.B. Kaledin, S.G. Ivanov, T.V. Glebova, V.I. Timonin

Институт геохимии и аналитической химии им. В.И. Вернадского РАН

МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана

The paper discusses the relevant topic of improving the efficiency of the underwater moving object detection, under the assumption that the object is the source of hydrodynamic disturbances (HDD). These disturbances are manifested in three environments: sea surface roughness, the surface layer of the water column and near-water layer of the atmosphere. The question of increase of the detection probability by means of usage of the aggregated laser optical equipment channels taking into account jamming effect of hydrometeorological conditions is studied. The analysis of the HDD impact on registration parameters is performed on the basis of the experimental researches. The problems are formulated for input signal processing and algorithms search for identifying informative features of the impact of the HDD source in the three environments.

Keywords: underwater object, hydrodynamic perturbations, interference impacts, signal processing.

pp. 85-94.